A treasure trove of fascinating and puzzling planets has been found circling distant stars beyond our Sun. Of these strange worlds, there is a class of gas giants called Hot jupiters, who stand out from the crowd as some of the strangest planetary beasts of all. Hot jupiters they circle their turbulent mother stars fast and closely in tan orbits and as such are too hot to sustain life. These huge and exotic “weirdos” are fascinating as well as mysterious, and there is nothing like it within our own Solar System. In January 2020, astronomers announced their new observations showing that the hottest of all is also the strangest. In fact, this hottest known Hot jupiter, nicknamed Celtic-9b, is classified as a “Ultrahot Jupiter”. The tormented and fiery giant world undergoes planetary melts that are so severe that they destroy the molecules that make up its exotic atmosphere that contains ionized atomic iron and individually ionized titanium.
As a Ultrahot Jupiter, Kelt-9b, is one of several known varieties of exoplanets belonging to the distant family of an alien star that inhabits our Milky Way. It weighs nearly three times the mass of Jupiter, the banded giant of our own Solar System, and surrounds its stellar parent about 670 light-years from Earth. Sporting a surface temperature of 7,800 degrees Fahrenheit, Kelt-9b it’s hotter than some stars. This planet has the distinction of being the hottest discovered so far.
Now a team of astronomers using infrared from NASA Spitzer space telescope-which ended its successful mission in January 2020- announced that they have found evidence that the heat is too much even for the molecules of this strange planet to remain intact. Hydrogen gas molecules are likely to break apart on the daytime side of this distant, scorching world, and cannot “stick together” again until the severed pieces of their disunited atoms travel to Kelt-9b’s cooler night side. Normally sequestered refractory elements can survive as atomic species, including individually ionized and neutral atomic iron (Fe and Fe +) and individually ionized titanium (Ti +).
Even if Kelt-9b’s The night side is still roasting, it’s a bit cooler than the day side, and it’s cool enough to allow the hydrogen gas molecules to come together and re-form. This happy situation lasts until the hydrogen molecules travel back to the intense heat on the daytime side, where they break down again, and the cycle begins anew.
“This type of planet has such an extreme temperature that it is a bit separate from many other exoplanets. There are a few others. Hot jupiters Y Ultrahot Jupiters they are not that hot, but they are warm enough for this effect to occur, “explained Megan Mansfield in a NASA report on January 24, 2020. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) press release. Ms. Mansfield is a graduate student at the University of Chicago and lead author of a new article revealing these findings. Tea JPL is in Pasadena, California.
These new findings are published in Astrophysical journal letters, and reveal the vastly improved sophistication of the technology and analysis required to investigate these very strange and mysterious distant worlds. Astronomers are just beginning to be able to look at the atmospheres of exoplanets, studying the molecular mergers of the brightest and hottest.
The best and the brightest, and the most attractive
KELT-9b orbit at the end Type B / early type A star KELT-9, and the hot gas giant was discovered by astronomers using the Kilodegree Extremely Small Telescope (KELT) in 2017.
The surface temperature of KELT-9b’s parent-star is 10,170 K, this is unusually hot for a star that harbors a transiting planet (a planet floating in front of the dazzling face of its parent star as seen from Earth). Before the discovery of KELT-9b, only half a dozen Type A stars were known to host planets, of which the warmest, WASP-33, it is significantly cooler at 7430 K. No Type B stars previously it was observed that they were surrounded by a planet. KELT-9b travels in a circular but highly inclined orbit around its star, roasting at just 0.03462 astronomical units (AU) of his stellar father. One TO it is equal to the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun, which is approximately 93,000,000 miles, and its orbital period is less than 1.5 days.
KELT-9b it is a huge gas giant world that weighs 2.8 times the mass of our own solar system’s banded giant, Jupiter. However, KELT-9b’s The density is less than half that of Jupiter. Like many others of its type of roast, KELT-9b it is tidally locked with its parent star. The outer limit of its atmosphere almost extends its Rock lobe. This means that the melting planet is undergoing rapid atmospheric leakage driven by the extreme amount of radiation it receives from its fiery, turbulent star.
KELT-9b it will always maintain its categorization as an uninhabitable planet. Astronomers became aware of its very harsh environment in 2017, when it was first discovered.
In the Astrophysical journal writing paper, the team of planetary scientists used the Spitzer space telescope for temperature profiles of this hellish roasting world. Before his mission ended, Spitzer was able to take measurements of subtle alterations in KELT-9b’s hot. Observations, repeated over many hours, enabled Spitzer to detect alterations in that world’s exotic atmosphere as the planet displayed itself in phases as it circled its parent star.
That allowed the team of astronomers to glimpse the difference between KELT-9b’s dayide and its perpetual “night”. In this case, the planet hugs its star in such a tight orbital hug that one “year” – one orbit around the star – takes just a day and a half. This means that the planet is locked in by the tides, perpetually showing only one face to its dazzling stellar parent. At the other side of KELT-9b, the night never ends. This is comparable to the way that Earth’s Moon shows only one side to our planet.
Gases and heat travel from one side KELT-9b the other. An important question for scientists trying to understand the atmosphere of alien planets is how radiation and flux are balanced.
Computer models are important tools in such studies, as they reveal how these atmospheres are likely to behave at different temperatures. The best scenario for the data obtained from KELT-9b it is one that includes hydrogen molecules that are torn apart only to be reassembled. This process is called dissociation and recombination.
“If you don’t take into account the dissociation of hydrogen, you get wind [37 miles or] 60 kilometers per second. That’s probably not likely, “commented Ms. Mansfield on January 24, 2020. JPL press release.
KELT-9b it does not experience large differences in temperature between its day and night sides. This suggests a flow of heat from one side to the other. Also, the “hot spot” on the daytime side, which is supposed to be directly below this planet’s host star, has moved away from its expected position. Astronomers do not know the reason for this. It remains another attractive mystery to be solved in this very strange, wonderful and very strange distant world.