Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was obviously a Renaissance scholar responsible for what many have known as the “Copernican Revolution.” Among the most important contributions of Copernicus was in the area of astronomy. Copernicus placed the sun in the middle of the universe, instead of planet Earth. The previous system, the Ptolemaic model, was geocentric (with the Earth at the center of the universe). In 1543, in his “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres”, he published his theory (which he had developed much earlier). While he still had the planets in circle patterns rather than ellipses, he posited that these circles did not have a single facility. Although it would be the center of gravity and also the lunar sphere, he stated that half of the Earth is not the center of the universe. He mentioned that the Earth is among the 7 planets of the solar system within the Sun, that is, stationary. He stated that the rotation of the Earth is included by the movements, the revolution and the annual inclination of the axis. He agreed with the experts who preceded him that the distance from Earth to sunlight is negligible compared to the distance from Earth to the stars. Tycho Brahe was one of Copernicus’ successors; however, the Tychonic System was essentially a geocentric model that included various mathematical foundations of heliocentric versions.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) designed on the foundations of Copernicus’s career. Also, a firm believer in heliocentric design, Galileo was placed under house arrest for much of his life for his beliefs after being tried in Rome. He was known as a heretic for thinking that the Sun, not the Earth, was the immobile center of the universe. In recent years, the Church has acknowledged that its handling of the Galileo affair was regrettable. In 1610, Galileo printed “The Starry Messenger”, which reported his discoveries of four of Jupiter’s moons, the roughness of the surface area of the Moon, stars invisible to the naked eye, and differences between the appearance of the planets as well of the fixed stars. In addition, he published observations on the full range of phases of Venus and published on the tides. Galileo’s theory was that the tides had been caused by the splash of water in the seas at a place on the Earth’s surface that accelerated at certain times of the day as a result of the Earth’s rotation. However, this is incorrect (since the tides are caused by the moon). Galileo also made a major statement on the fundamental idea of relativity (the regulations of physics are exactly the same in any system moving at a frequent speed in a straight line). Galileo was one of the first to observe a sunspot without wrongly attributing it to a transit of Mercury. Galileo also showed that falling bodies of material that is similar but of various masses have identical descent times. Essentially, the descent time is mass free. Galileo also showed that there are as many perfect squares as there are whole numbers, although most numbers are not ideal squares; Since you will find non-squares and squares, and only a few figures are squares, there should be fewer squares than non-square numbers. However, for every number there is a square. So, in fact, there is a 1: 1 ratio of non-squares to squares.

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is responsible for producing Kepler’s planetary motion regulations. These laws include that the orbit of each Earth is an ellipse along with the Sun between the two foci, that a line connecting the Sun and a planet sweeps out equal parts for equal times of time, which is the square of the orbital time of any planet. it is specifically proportional to the cube of a semi-major axis of its orbit. Kepler was one of the first to add the area of physics and also the field of astronomy. This sparked some controversy, however his concepts became much more read and accepted after his death. Once Newton derived Kepler’s laws from a common principle of gravitation, they became part of the theoretical canon of the Scientific Revolution.