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Introduction

CCTV cameras are easy to install, have proven themselves and have been used especially in streets, schools, shops, banks, government offices, hospitals, public and private institutions. CCTV systems have some functions to reduce crime, assault and assist police investigations (Skills for Security, 2010). CCTV cameras capture images of the crimes that take place (detection). In some cases, this leads to the removal of the offender’s ability to break a law (crime deterrence). The potential criminal becomes aware of the presence of CCTV, assesses the risks of breaking into one location, and chooses not to take action or move on elsewhere (Skills for Security, 2010).

On the other hand, the real story for me is about the failure of CCTV to deter people from committing crime during the riots in England. From my point of view, the surveillance theory of deterrence had no connection to the motivations of the rioters. The theory of street crime as a rational act failed. The evidence from the deployment of CCTV shows where CCTV works and that is, for example, in garages, banks, shops, etc. In this case, the CCTV system makes perfect sense as part of a burglar alarm that goes off, for example, when glass is broken. Generally, people behave according to their social contract, the set of rules that enforce them together, instilling internal vigilance in the form of regulation and aspiration. For this reason, CCTV systems are an invitation to move away from contract and their mutual duty, to become the anarchy that CCTV is meant to prevent. CCTV devices also introduce self-discipline.

In this sense, you can constantly remind yourself of all the risks that you must be aware of at all times. Consequently, they can change their behavior by trying to increase their alertness. CCTV cameras can produce self-discipline through fear of surveillance, be it real or imagined. The belief that CCTV alone can counter complex social problems is extremely unrealistic (Skills for Security, 2010). CCTV may work best in conjunction with other measures to bring about some change and there is still much to learn about how to use it to the greatest effect.

Additionally, CCTV cameras allow those monitoring the scene to determine if police assistance is required. This crime prevention mechanism requires that the police can respond in a timely manner to any significant incidents identified by CCTV operators, and that the local criminal justice system can pursue the conviction of offenders (Skills for Security, 2010). The availability of local resources is a crucial factor for the success of this mechanism. CCTV footage can also help identify potential witnesses who would not otherwise present themselves to the police. Therefore, this ensures that police resources are called in only when necessary (efficient deployment) (Skills for Security, 2010).

The CCTV systems that security companies install today are already fully integrated and complete with security lighting, access control, and alarms. For this reason, clients can be offered top-of-the-line security (Skills for Security, 2010). As examples of those systems, I would recommend 3 models: V-CR420 is a card reader with a built-in 4MP wide-angle IP camera. The card reader recognizes the ID cards and grants access accordingly. This all-in-one solution eliminates the need to install and maintain a separate camera in addition to the card reader. LGWP is a well established detector in the market and recognized as a reliable product with excellent wireless communication capabilities. It has the additional feature of twin dual sensors with mirror / lens optics and infrared anti-masking. PIH-7535DHPL is a PTZ camera from Merit Lilin with 35x optical zoom, super high resolution, day / night, 4 patrols with self-learning, alarm programming and position setting.

The basic functions of CCTV systems

The basic CCTV system consists of a camera (imaging device), transmission medium (connecting cable) and monitor. Larger CCTV systems use more cameras (which can be controlled remotely); include multiple viewpoints (monitors, controllers, multiplexers); use a variety of transmission media to send the signal from the camera to the display device (coaxial cable, fiber optic, twisted pair, fixed lines or wireless transmission via microwave) (Skills for Security, 2010). Recorders store video images and printers generate a “hard copy” of selected images. Switching devices allow operators to select specific cameras and direct their output to specific monitoring instruments. Controllers allow operators to point the camera at an area of ​​interest and zoom in or out of the image (Skills for Security, 2010).

CCTV Components

The quality of any security system depends on the weakest link, which is often the cameras, where the imaging stage is harder to understand and easier to get wrong. Camera assemblies can be grouped into fixed, pan / tilt / zoom, covert, open, and dome (Skills for Security, 2010).

Selecting the correct camera requires a clear understanding of a number of selection and performance criteria that can combine or conflict when putting together an integrated CCTV system. The quality of the camera depends on the lens. A first point to remember is that not all lenses will fit all cameras. The lens mount problem must be taken into account. A second factor with lenses is whether they are fixed focus or varifocal. Lenses are also offered in different focal lengths (Skills for Security, 2010).

There are specific requirements that control the size of screen images for human recognition and detection. For this reason, a lens calculator should always be used when selecting and installing cameras (Skills for Security, 2010). Today, most cameras capture their images on solid-state sensors, known as a charged coupled device (CCD). The CCD camera has a higher sensitivity to light than other types of camera, which gives it a wider operating range. The resolution of a CCD camera is measured in pixels.

Basically, resolution is the amount of detail in the image, the higher the resolution and the better the image quality. Most CCD cameras are in color, due to the advantages of a color image for identification purposes. However, color cameras require decent lighting to provide good images (Skills for Security, 2010). Monochrome cameras are also sensitive to actively generated and natural infrared light and can therefore be used in night time applications where normal lighting is not preferable or acceptable.

Pan / Tilt / Zoom (PTZ) cameras can monitor outside activity over a wide area and provide the advantage of allowing an operator to get close to suspicious activity. PTZ cameras also have disadvantages, such as: they are very expensive compared to normal fixed cameras; They require a stronger mount due to their higher weight and do not provide 24/7 coverage of a given location due to the fact that their viewing direction is altered when operated manually.

Dome cameras create a 360 ° surveillance impression. There are two types of dome cameras available, the first is a simple fixed camera, and the second type is a fully functional PTZ assembly, suitable for indoor or outdoor use, providing full 360 ° coverage. The panoramic is very fast; this system can be manually operated, configured to “patrol” through multiple sequences, or a combination of both.

CCTV: Implications for Security Administrators

Regardless of the technologies used in the design and implementation of a CCTV security system, there are a number of issues that must be addressed in all situations (Skills for Security, 2010). First, what information does a customer / security manager want the system to provide?

There are three possible basic responses: Detection: indicates that something is happening in the field of interest. Recognition: determine exactly what is happening. Identification: determine who is involved in the activity.

Second, there is a need for a different kind of specification: the performance specification that specifies not what the system should be, but what a customer / security manager wants it to be able to do under defined conditions. In this way, there is a clear and written understanding between the buyer and the installer that the system must meet the agreed performance parameters (Skills for Security, 2010). This particular point will be important once the system is in use and not working as agreed. If a customer / security manager agrees to a technical specification and the installer installs what he requests, but then does not provide the quality he requires, then it may be more difficult for him to correct it (Skills for Security, 2010).

Third, the starting point for any CCTV performance specification is to first establish an operational requirement (OR). A clear understanding of the operational requirements is critical to the design, testing and operation of an effective and economical CCTV system. The operational requirement provides all the information that the security manager requires to begin the process (OR), including examples and checklists for CCTV planning and implementation (Skills for Security, 2010).

Conclution

CCTV may not be able to completely reduce crime or deter criminals; however, it is used effectively to target specific crimes. In addition, there is no question that it is a powerful and innovative weapon in the security / police arsenal and widely helps to control crime and provide moral support for the law.

References:

Safety Skills (2010) Level 3 security operations

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